Direct and indirect speech: Reporting verb

Reporting verb is the verb which reports the speech.

  • She said, „I am fine.“ (Reporting verb: said)
  • He asked, „Can I have more of that cheese?“ (Reporting verb: asked)
  • She says, „I am going.“ (Reporting verb: says)

Continue reading „Direct and indirect speech: Reporting verb“

Direct and indirect speech: Rules for the change of adverbs

Words showing nearness in direct speech are normally changed into words showing distance in indirect speech. The most common changes are given below. Continue reading „Direct and indirect speech: Rules for the change of adverbs“

Direct and indirect speech: Reporting questions

In reported questions the subject normally comes before the verb. It is not necessary to use do or did. Question marks are not used in reported questions. Continue reading „Direct and indirect speech: Reporting questions“

Indirect speech: Rules for the change of tenses

When the reporting verb is in the past tense, all present tenses within the inverted commas are changed into the corresponding past tenses.

Simple present will change into simple past.

  • She said, „I am fine.“
  • She said that she was fine.

Continue reading „Indirect speech: Rules for the change of tenses“

Personal and Impersonal Passive

Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive.

Example: They build houses. – Houses are built. Continue reading „Personal and Impersonal Passive“

Passives: object complements

After some verbs the direct object can be followed by an object complement – a noun or adjective which describes or classifies the object.

  • They elected him their leader.
  • The other children called her stupid.
  • We all regarded her as an expert.
  • Queen Victoria considered him a genius.

Continue reading „Passives: object complements“

Passives: Verbs with two objects

Many verbs can be followed by two objects – an indirect object and a direct object. The indirect object usually refers to a person and the direct object usually refers to a thing. Two structures are possible.

  • She gave me (indirect object) a nice gift (direct object).
  • She gave a nice gift (direct object) to me (indirect object).

Continue reading „Passives: Verbs with two objects“