Reporting verb is the verb which reports the speech. She said, „I am fine.“ (Reporting verb: said) He asked, „Can I have more of that cheese?“ (Reporting verb: asked) She says, „I am going.“ (Reporting verb: says)
Words showing nearness in direct speech are normally changed into words showing distance in indirect speech. The most common changes are given below.
To report a promise, hope or intention we use an appropriate reporting verb followed by a that-clause or a to-infinitive.
To report orders, requests and suggestions, we normally use a reporting verb like tell with (object) + to infinitive.
In reported questions the subject normally comes before the verb. It is not necessary to use do or did. Question marks are not used in reported questions.
When the reporting verb is in the past tense, all present tenses within the inverted commas are changed into the corresponding past tenses. Simple present will change into simple past. She said, „I am fine.“ She said that she was fine.
There are two main ways of reporting people’s thoughts, words, beliefs etc. Direct speech We can repeat or quote the exact words spoken. This kind of reporting is called direct speech.