Direct and indirect speech

There are two main ways of reporting people’s thoughts, words, beliefs etc. Direct speech We can repeat or quote the exact words spoken. This kind of reporting is called direct speech. She said, "I am going.” "The soup is too hot!” cried little Einstein. He said, "I want to go home.” Indirect (reported) speech We … Продължете с четенето на Direct and indirect speech

Personal and Impersonal Passive

Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive. Example: They build houses. – Houses are built. Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there … Продължете с четенето на Personal and Impersonal Passive

Passives: object complements

After some verbs the direct object can be followed by an object complement – a noun or adjective which describes or classifies the object. They elected him their leader. The other children called her stupid. We all regarded her as an expert. Queen Victoria considered him a genius. When these clauses are made passive, these … Продължете с четенето на Passives: object complements

Passives: Verbs with two objects

Many verbs can be followed by two objects - an indirect object and a direct object. The indirect object usually refers to a person and the direct object usually refers to a thing. Two structures are possible. She gave me (indirect object) a nice gift (direct object). She gave a nice gift (direct object) to … Продължете с четенето на Passives: Verbs with two objects

Verbs not used in the passive

Not all verbs can have passive forms. Passive structures are not possible with intransitive verbs like die, cry or arrive, which cannot have objects. He died yesterday. The baby cried aloud. Some transitive verbs, too, are seldom used in the passive. Most of these verbs refer to states, not actions. Examples are: have, lack, resemble, … Продължете с четенето на Verbs not used in the passive

Passive verb forms, tenses

Simple Present Active verb form: write/writes He writes a letter. I write letters. Passive verb form: is/am/are + written A letter is written by him. Letters are written by me. Present Progressive Active verb form: is/am/are + writing He is writing a letter. I am writing letters. Passive verb form: is/am/are + being + written … Продължете с четенето на Passive verb forms, tenses

Active and Passive Voice

When we say what people and things do, we use active verb forms. When we say what happens to people and things - what is done to them - we often use passive verb forms. They built this house in 1960. (active) This house was built in 1960. (passive) This book will change your life. … Продължете с четенето на Active and Passive Voice

Infinitives without to

Infinitives are generally used with the marker to. But we use the infinitive without to in some cases. After modal auxiliary verbs After the modal auxiliary verbs will, shall, would, should, can, could, may, might and must, we use the infinitive without to. I shall write to him. (NOT I shall to write...) We can … Продължете с четенето на Infinitives without to

Infinitive forms

Besides simple infinitives like (to) write, there are also progressive, perfect and passive infinitives. Progressive Infinitive Form: (to) + be + present participle Examples are: (to) be writing, (to) be reading, (to) be walking etc. The progressive infinitive is used to suggest that actions and events are/were/will be continuing around the time we are talking … Продължете с четенето на Infinitive forms

Functions of the to-infinitive

Functions of the to-infinitive The to-infinitive as the subject of the sentence. This is a formal usage and is far more common in written English than spoken: Examples:     To err is human, to forgive divine.     To find fault with others is easy.     To visit the Grand Canyon is my life-long dream. And … Продължете с четенето на Functions of the to-infinitive