Present perfect and simple past: differences

We do not use the present perfect with expressions that refer to a completely finished period of time, like yesterday, last week, when, then, five years ago, in 1995. The simple past is used with this meaning. Continue reading „Present perfect and simple past: differences“

Past verb forms with present or future meaning

A past verb form does not always have a past meaning. Verbs like I had, you went and I was wondering are often used to talk about the present or the future.

after if, unless, supposing etc.

After if, unless and words with similar meanings, we often use past verb forms to refer to the present or the future. Continue reading „Past verb forms with present or future meaning“

Present tenses to talk about the future

When we talk about future events which have already been planned or decided, or which we can see are on the way, we often use present tenses.

The present progressive

The present progressive is used mostly to talk about personal arrangements and fixed plans, especially when the time and place have been decided. Continue reading „Present tenses to talk about the future“

Present perfect progressive tense

Affirmative Negative Question
I have been writing
She has been writing.
You have been writing.
I have not been writing.
She has not been writing.
You have not been writing.
Have I been writing?
Has she been writing?
Have you been writing?

Uses of the present perfect progressive tense

We use the present perfect progressive to talk about situations which started in the past and are still going on, or which have just stopped and have present results. Continue reading „Present perfect progressive tense“

Present perfect tense

Affirmative Negative Question
I have written
She has written.
You have written.
I have not written.
She has not written.
You have not written.
Have I written?
Has she written?
Have you written?

Uses of the present perfect tense

past events connected with the present

We can use the present perfect tense to say that a finished action or event is connected with the present in some way.

  • He has broken his leg. (His leg is broken now.)
  • Somebody has let the cat in. (The cat is in now.)
  • Our dog has died. (Our dog is dead.)

Continue reading „Present perfect tense“