Direct and indirect speech: Reporting verb

Reporting verb is the verb which reports the speech.

  • She said, „I am fine.“ (Reporting verb: said)
  • He asked, „Can I have more of that cheese?“ (Reporting verb: asked)
  • She says, „I am going.“ (Reporting verb: says)

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Direct and indirect speech: Rules for the change of adverbs

Words showing nearness in direct speech are normally changed into words showing distance in indirect speech. The most common changes are given below. Continue reading „Direct and indirect speech: Rules for the change of adverbs“

Direct and indirect speech: Reporting questions

In reported questions the subject normally comes before the verb. It is not necessary to use do or did. Question marks are not used in reported questions. Continue reading „Direct and indirect speech: Reporting questions“

Indirect speech: Rules for the change of tenses

When the reporting verb is in the past tense, all present tenses within the inverted commas are changed into the corresponding past tenses.

Simple present will change into simple past.

  • She said, „I am fine.“
  • She said that she was fine.

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